Chapter III Explain/define the following:

  1. Arguments – Deduction and Induction:
  • Define a Deductive argument:
  • Define an Inductive argument:
  • The distinction between inductive and deductive arguments lies in the strength of an argument’s inferential claim. Read note below.

Note: There are three factors that influence our decision about an argument’s inferential claim as being deductive or inductive.

1) The occurrence of indicator words such as “certainly” or “probably”.

2) The strength of the inferential link.

3) The form of the argument.

  • What is the difference between the strength of the deductive and inductive inferential link?
  • List seven valid deductive argument types by name. Now, write out the form for each. Information is in text and handouts.








  • List some Inductive argument types and define each: (lectures)




  1. Validity, Truth, Soundness:
  • Define a valid deductive argument:
  • Define an invalid deductive argument.
  • Describe a test for validity. (text p. 75, and lectures).



  • If assuming the premises true and the conclusion false entails a contradiction, then the argument is: (circle one)
  1. a.) valid b.) invalid
  • If the conditions in D, above, do not entail a contradiction, then the argument is: (circle one)
  1. a.) valid b.) invalid
  • What is the condition in the premises and conclusion that cannot exist if an argument is valid?
  • Define a Soundness:
  • Inductive Arguments:
  • Define a strong inductive argument.
  • Define a weak inductive argument.
  • Define Cogency, (soundness for inductive arguments).
  • List the forms of two invalid common argument forms.