Read the articles and write 500 words reflection

Please don;t summarize. you should write your own opinions, related to some real things

Please read the following required readings and optional readings:

Hope for domestic reform and renewed U.S.-Cuba business ties during the Obama
Administration’s opening to Cuba was followed by the sharp renewal of aggressive sanctions
and internal retrenchment under President Trump. Since then, the pandemic and the island’s
worst economic crisis in 30 years has forced a return to private sector expansion domestically.
But historic protests in summer 2021 and record migration in 2022 highlighted intertwined
fronts of political and economic contestation as well as demands for systemic change
that persist on the island to this day. With only modest change in U.S. policy under the Biden
administration since, Cuban authorities are increasingly turning to Russia and China for
assistance, raising the geopolitical stakes. We will explore these developments and their implications for the business climate in Cuba, for foreign investors as well as new actors in the
Cuban private sector.

Required Reading
• Cuba Study Group, “U.S.-Cuba Relations in the Biden Era: A Case for Making
Engagement Resilient as a Means of Providing Long-Term Support for the Cuban
People” (February 2021),
• Ailynn Torres Santana, “J-11 in Cuba,” NACLA Report on the Americas, July 22,
• Oscar Fernández Estrada, “The Time for SMEs in Cuba?,” Nuevos Espacios (blog),
December 27, 2021,

Optional Reading
 Michael J. Bustamante, “Patria y Vida, 11J, and the (Not So) New Cuban Culture
Wars,” in The Road Ahead: Cuba After the July 11 Protests, Center for Latin American
and Latino Studies, American University, 2021.
 Carmelo MesaLago, “Cuba Lags Behind. Comparing the Performance of Two Socialist
Economic Models: Cuba and Vietnam,” Horizonte Cubano, Cuba
Capacity Building Project, Columbia University, March 31,
 Peter Beinart, “America’s Foes Are Joining Forces,” New York Times, July 3,
 Aldo Álvarez, “Foreign Investment in Cuba: New Opportunities for the Private and
NonState Sectors,” Horizonte Cubano, Cuba Capacity Building Project, Columbia
University, June 29, 2021,

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